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Interior of Levels 1,2 & 3.
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Leffel Turbine
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Grinnell Mill - Leffel Turbine
Grinnell Mill, Yellow Springs, Ohio. Turbine.
The Leffel turbine was used in Grinnell Mill after the Flood of 1913. Due to extensive damage, Grinnell Mill decided to switch from a wooden waterwheel to this turbine in 1914. The Leffel turbine was built in Springfield, Ohio just west of Columbus, Ohio.
Grinnell Mill, Yellow Springs, Ohio. Turbine
This turbine now is permanently fixed on the south-south-east side of Grinnell Mill.
Grinnell Mill, Yellow Springs, Ohio. Turbine
You can see Grinnell Road (Rt. 27) in the background. Just beyond the road is the Little Miami River flowing north parallelling the road.
Grinnell Mill, Yellow Springs, Ohio. Turbine
The amount of power is determined by the size of the turbine, the volume of water available (flow) and by the 'head' (or 'fall'). The head is the difference in height of the water level at the top of the dam (flume level) and the water level at the bottom of the dam (discharge level). (Stockdale Mill near Roann, Indiana. Click here for their turbine information.)
Grinnell Mill, Yellow Springs, Ohio. Turbine
"Why his invention worked so well, Leffel himself, it was said, could not explain. His hydraulic notebook, in which he recorded the results of the encounter with the Kindleberger wheel, indicates, however, more than a fortuitous gathering together of parts by Leffel. Though probably he had developed the wheel's efficiency through laborious trial and error methods, the notebook demeonstrates that Leffel was well acquainted with the theory and practice of hydraulic physics. Certainly he was confident that he developed an effective mechanism. He asserted in his patent application that it was capable "of yielding from ninety-two to ninety-five percent of the power of the water and a greater percent than any other wheel heretofore constructed." (Ohio History Volume 75, Number 4. The Ohio Historical Society)
Grinnell Mill, Yellow Springs, Ohio. Turbine
Grinnell Mill, Yellow Springs, Ohio. Turbine
Grinnell Mill, Yellow Springs, Ohio. Turbine
Grinnell Mill, Yellow Springs, Ohio. Turbine
Our tour guide and Miami Township Trustee demonstrates how large and impressive Grinnell Mills original Leffel turbine appears today.
Grinnell Mill, Yellow Springs, Ohio.  Turbine Diagram.
Some cool terminology to identify what all those pieces are !
Grinnell Mill, Yellow Springs, Turbine, Sluice, Dam, Mill Pond, Head.

The dam, sluice and or head race has to be at an elevation above the water that drops down into the pit and flows through the turbine. Once the water is spent through the turbine it flows from the pit into the tail race. As the water flows through the turbine its power to spin on the blades is in direct proportion to the amount of power the water has when it flows from the level of the dam, sluice or head race. The difference between the level of the water when it drops down to the turbine is called the head. The greater elevation the turbine has for the head, the faster the turbine is able to turn and power the vertical drive shaft up into the mill. When floods occur, the water in the pit and tail race are elevated and there is an equalization of the water levels which reduces the head. Some mills had the opportunity to install a steam engine which was used during times of flooding.

Grinnell Mill, Yellow Springs, Ohio. Leffel Turbine.
This is an old photograph of Grinnell Mill while it functioned with the turbine.
The following same photograh identifies some aspects of how a turbine works.
Grinnell Mill, Yellow Springs, Ohio. Leffel Turbine.
This photo gives you the opportunity to see how Grinnell Mill looked while it had the mill pond near the turbine and pit.
 

Click Here to View Grinnel Mill Video


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